Breast cancer; symptoms, stages, causes, and risk factors

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Breast cancer is that the most frequent invasive cancer in women, and after carcinoma, it's the second-largest explanation for cancer death in women.

The need for screening and being aware of the symptoms are both significant methods to reduce the risk.

Breast cancer can afflict men in rare cases, but this article will focus on breast cancer in women.

Symptoms

A thicker tissue area in the breast, a lump in the breast, or a lump in the armpit is frequently the first indicators of breast cancer. Other signs and symptoms include:

·        pitting or redness of the breast skin, resembling the surface of an orange

·        a rash on one among the nipples or around it

·        a nipple discharge, potentially including blood

·        a nipple that is sunken or inverted

·        a change in the size or contour of the breasts

·        the skin on the breast or nipple peels, flakes, or scales.

The majority of breast lumps aren't malignant. If a lady notices a lump on her breast, she should see a doctor for an examination. The size of the tumor and whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other regions of the body are used to classify cancer.

Stages

Breast cancer can be staged in a variety of ways.

From stage 0 through 4, with subdivided categories at each numbered level, is one way.

The four basic stages are described here, while the precise substage of cancer may be determined by other tumor characteristics, such as the presence of the HER2 receptor.

Stage 0: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to cancer cells that have only infiltrated the ducts and have not spread to the surrounding tissues.

Stage 1: At this stage, the tumor can be up to 2 centimeters (cm) broad.

There are minimal clusters of cancer cells in the lymph nodes, or no lymph nodes have been injured.

Stage 2: The tumor has grown to 2 cm in diameter and has begun to spread to neighboring lymph nodes, or it has grown to 2–5 cm in diameter but has not migrated to the lymph nodes.

Stage 3: The tumor has expanded to numerous lymph nodes and is up to 5 cm across, or the tumor is larger than 5 cm and has spread to a few lymph nodes.

Stage 4: Other sections of the body have been affected by cancer, most commonly the bones, liver, brain, or lungs.

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Causes

A woman's breast is made up of connective tissue, fat, and thousands of lobules after puberty.

Breastfeeding milk is produced by these small glands. Milk goes to the nipple via ducts, which are small tubes. Cancer produces uncontrollable cell proliferation. They do not pass away at the usual age. Because the tumor consumes nutrition and energy, it deprives the cells around it, resulting in cancer.

The inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that provide milk to them is the most common site for breast cancer. It then has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

Risk factors

Breast cancer's specific etiology is unknown, although various risk factors make it more likely.

Some of these dangers can be avoided if you take the right precautions.

1. Your Age:

Breast cancer risk rises as people get older. Breast cancer has a 0.06 percent probability of developing in the next decade after 20 years. By the age of 70, this percentage had risen to 3.84 percent.

2. Biology and Genetics:

Breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both are more likely in women who have particular mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes are passed down from one generation to subsequent.

3. A history of carcinoma or tumors within the breasts:

Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again than those who have never had it. Some types of noncancerous breast lumps increase the risk of later getting cancer.

Typical ductal hyperplasia and lobular cancer in situ are two examples.

If you have a family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, talk to your doctor about genetic testing.

4. Breast tissue that is dense:

Breast cancer is more likely to be diagnosed in women who have thick breasts.

5. Breastfeeding and estrogen exposure:

Breast cancer appears to be increased by long-term estrogen exposure. This could be because a woman's periods start earlier or she enters menopause at a later age than the average.

Estrogen levels are higher between these times.

Breastfeeding, especially for more than a year, appears to lower the risk of breast cancer.

This could be because of the decrease in estrogen exposure that occurs after pregnancy and breastfeeding.

6. Body mass index:

After menopause, women who gain weight or become obese may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, probably due to increasing estrogen levels.

A high sugar intake could also have a role.

7. Use of alcoholic beverages:

Regular alcohol use appears to play a role in the development of breast cancer.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) reports that studies consistently show that women who drink alcohol have a higher risk of breast cancer than those who do not.

Those who consume moderate to excessive amounts of alcohol are at a higher risk than those who do not consume alcohol.

8. Exposure to radiation:

Radiation therapy for cancer other than breast cancer may raise the risk of acquiring breast cancer later in life.

Content created and supplied by: Wykin (via Opera News )

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