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Passage of watery stool or abnormal stool in consistency and frequency for the age of the child. Newborn can pass stool varying from 4 to 6 times/day.
Such disease can be due to alot of reasons which include ; – Bottle feeding. – Malnutrition. – Recent illness. – Measles. – HIV/AIDS in children. – Change in Diet.
Environmental factors that causes it include;
– Taking faecally contaminated water, food or poor sanitation. – Lack of water – Host Factors like malnutrition and genetic factors can also cause it .
There has been Improvement in diarrhoea related mortality from the year 2000. Current situation in Nigeria is 1 out of 10 childhood death in 2015 were due to diarrhoeal illness , this translate to 526,000 death/year , 1400 death/day , 60 deaths/hour , I death every minute.
– Virus: Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Calicivirus, Astrovirus, Novovirus .
– Bacteria: Enterotoxigenic E.coli ,clostridium,shigella,Yersinia,Salmonella,Compylobacter.
– Parasite: G. lamblia , Cryptosporidium Entemoeba histolytica.
Signs of dehydration;
Thirst: Body weight loss of 4-5%.
Ask for excessive thirst in the child.
Look for Sunken eyes in the child ,Dry mouth and tongue, Deep and rapid breathing
Feel for rapid and weak pulse , Skin return slowly when drawn , Sunken fontanelle in babies ,Body weight loss 5-10%.
Ask if there is no urine for several hours , altered state of consciousness , unable to drink water.
Look for deeply sunken eyes, presence of tears, very dry mouth and tongue and deep, rapid breathing .
Feel Rapid feeble almost impalpable pulse , Low blood pressure , body weight loss more than 10%.
At home include Administering of Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS). While at the hospital the child will be placed on ORS with Continued feeding and will be giving zink to encourage the intestinal growth together with vitamin A.
However the child will be placed on fluids via a canula incase he started persistent vomiting , severe Dehydration, or the child is uncooperative ,in shock or in coma.
Prevention in babies and children;
-Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months and adequate complementary feeding for the next six month in a total of 1 year . Give Vitamin A supplementation.
Prevention: Hand washing ,safe drinking water, safe sanitation, immunisation against measles, rotavirus, pertussis infection . HIV Prevention: Prophylaxis cotrimaxazole for HIV infected or exposed children.
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